Unfortunately, craniofacial, head, face, and neck injuries occur in more than half of the cases of child abuse. A careful and thorough intraoral and perioral examination is necessary in all cases of suspected abuse and neglect. Authorities are trained to evaluate the child well being that oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse because of its significance in communication and nutrition.
Oral injuries may be inflicted with instruments such as eating utensils or a bottle during forced feedings, hands, fingers, or scalding liquids or caustic substances. The abuse may result in: contusions, burns, or lacerations of the tongue, lips, buccal mucosa, palate (soft and hard), gingivae, alveolar mucosa, or frenum; fractured, displaced, oravulsed teeth; or facial bone and jaw fractures.